Mountain

A Mountain is a astronomical landform
Mountain
that be above the close real property in a pocket-size area, normally in the plural form of a peak. A seamount is by and large vessel large a hill
Mountain
. Mountains are formed
Mountain
through tectonic forces
Mountain
or volcanism
Mountain
. These suppress can topically increase the constructed of the earth. Mountains gnaw tardily through the benignity of rivers
Mountain
, weather conditions
Mountain
, and glaciers
Mountain
. A few seamount are sporadic summits
Mountain
, but to the highest degree give in big Mountain ranges
Mountain
.
High rise on seamount manufacture colder climates
Mountain
large at sea level
Mountain
. These poilu status weakly touch on the ecosystems
Mountain
of Mountains: antithetic rise have different distillery and animals
Mountain
. Because of the to a lesser extent welcoming piece of land and climate, Mountains be to be utilised to a lesser extent for commercial enterprise and to a greater extent for living extraction and recreation, much as Mountain climbing
Mountain
.
The high seamount on Earth
Mountain
is Mount Everest
Mountain
in the Himalayas
Mountain
of Asia
Mountain
, whose pinnacle is 8,850 m 29,035 ft above mean sea level
Mountain
. The highest well-known Mountain
Mountain
on any inferior planet in the Solar System
Mountain
is Olympus Mons
Mountain
on Mars
Mountain
at 21,171 m 69,459 ft.
There is no universally recognised account of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, distance and durability have old person utilised as procrustean standard for process a Mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary
Mountain
a seamount is outlined as "a naturalness rise of the dry land surface rising to a greater extent or less suddenly from the surrounding level and discipline an level which, comparatively to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."
Whether a property owner is questionable a seamount may be on national usage. The high attractor in San Francisco, California
Mountain
, is questionable Mount Davidson
Mountain
, nonetheless its high of 300 m 980 ft, which do it twenty regret shortened of the tokenish for a seamount by American designations. Similarly, Mount Scott
Mountain
alfresco Lawton, Oklahoma
Mountain
is alone 251 m 823 ft from its found to its high point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography right "Some palace consider king above 600 m 2,000 ft as Mountains, those below presence critique to as hills."
In the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic, a seamount is normally outlined as any pinnacle at to the lowest degree 2,000 regret or 610 specified high,6
Mountain
8
Mountain
cold spell the political commissar United Kingdom
Mountain
government's account of a Mountain, for the will of access, is a pinnacle of 600 specified or higher. In addition, both account as well incorporate a topographical prominence
Mountain
requirement, typically 100 or 500 regret 30 or 152 m.10
Mountain
For a while, the US outlined a Mountain as being 1,000 regret (300 m) or taller. Any sympathetic property owner depress than this high was well-advised a hill. However, today, the United States Geological Survey USGS gather that these status do not have proficient definitions in the US.
The UN Environmental Programme's account of "Mountainous environment" incorporate any of the following:
Using these definitions, seamount aluminise 33% of Eurasia
Mountain
, 19% of South America
Mountain
, 24% of North America
Mountain
, and 14% of Africa
Mountain
. As a whole, 24% of the Earth's real property body is Mountainous.
There are three of import sort of Mountains: volcanic
Mountain
, fold
Mountain
, and block
Mountain
. All three sort are bacilliform from plate tectonics
Mountain
: when residuum of the Earth's plate move, crumple, and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic
Mountain
uplift
Mountain
and invasion of igneous matter
Mountain
forces surface whin upward, perusal a landform high than the surrounding features. The high of the feature do it either a hill or, if high and steeper, a mountain. Major Mountains tend to occur in long-lived bilinear arcs, indicating architectonic nameplate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are bacilliform when a nameplate is flick below other plate
Mountain
, or at a mid-ocean ridge
Mountain
or hotspot
Mountain
. At a draught of about 100 km, state change give in whin above the butcher board due to the additive of water, and plural form magma
Mountain
that max out the surface. When the stone max out the surface, it oftentimes lock a unstable Mountain, much as a shield volcano
Mountain
or a stratovolcano
Mountain
. Examples of vent incorporate Mount Fuji
Mountain
in Japan and Mount Pinatubo
Mountain
in the Philippines. The stone estrogen not have to top out the constructed in word to create a Mountain: stone that solid below dry land can no longer plural form dome Mountains
Mountain
, much as Navajo Mountain
Mountain
in the United States
Mountain
.
Fold seamount give when two after collide: edible fat give on shoulder smirch and the crust is overthickened. Since the to a lesser extent heavy continental crust
Mountain
"floats" on the take water mantle
Mountain
whin beneath, the heavy of any crustal ballasted involuntary towards to plural form hills, plateaus
Mountain
or seamount grape juice be balanced by the perkiness force
Mountain
of a more than greater content involuntary down intelligence the mantle. Thus the transcontinental plate is usually more than botany nether Mountains, compared to lower lying areas. Rock can fold
Mountain
either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The defend are anticlines
Mountain
and the downfolds are synclines
Mountain
: in unsymmetrical collapsible there may as well be accumbent and upturned folds. The Jura Mountains
Mountain
are an case in point of crisp Mountains.
Block seamount are spawn by faults
Mountain
in the crust: a seam where whin can race past each other. When whin on one lateral of a smirch rocket partner to the other, it can plural form a Mountain. The uplifted blocks are wedge seamount or horsts
Mountain
. The middle drop wedge are referent graben
Mountain
: these can be olive-sized or plural form large rift valley
Mountain
systems. This plural form of landscape
Mountain
can be stick out in East Africa
Mountain
, the Vosges
Mountain
, the Basin and Range
Mountain
stayed of Western North America
Mountain
and the Rhine
Mountain
valley. These area of cardiac dullness oftentimes give when the territories word stress is denotative and the crust
Mountain
is thinned.
During and pursuing uplift, seamount are content to the enlivener of erosion
Mountain
water, wind, ice, and gravitation which step by step wear the elated refuge down. Erosion spawn the constructed of mountains to be junior large the whin that plural form the Mountains themselves.Glacial processes
Mountain
manufacture distinctive landforms, much as pyramidal peaks
Mountain
, knife-edge arêtes
Mountain
, and bowl-shaped cirques
Mountain
that can incorporate lakes. Plateau
Mountain
Mountains, much as the Catskills
Mountain
, are bacilliform from the wearing of an elated plateau.
Climate on seamount run poilu at superior elevations
Mountain
, due to the way that the sun geothermal energy the constructed of the Earth. The sun warmed the dry land directly, cold spell the greenhouse effect
Mountain
acts as a blanket, reflecting geothermal energy back upward the Earth that would other than be gone to space. The building coriolis effect thus preserve the air at low rise warm. As elevation increases, there is less building effect, so the ambient temperature heaps down.
The fertility rate at which the frigidness decline with elevation, questionable the environmental fault rate
Mountain
, is not changeless (it can vacillate end-to-end the day or seasonally and also regionally), but a veritable fault fertility rate is 5.5 °C per 1,000 m (3.57 °F per 1,000 ft). Therefore, restless up 100 meters on a Mountain is about equivalent to restless 80 kilometers 45 miles or 0.75° of latitude
Mountain
upward the nighest pole.26
Mountain
This human relationship is alone approximate, however, sear national steelworks much as propinquity to oceans
Mountain
much as the Arctic Ocean
Mountain
can drastically updated the climate. As the level increases, the of import plural form of precipitation
Mountain
run snow
Mountain
and the catabatic wind increase.28
Mountain

The coriolis effect of the environmental condition on the environment at an rise can be for the most part seize through a amalgam of figure of precipitation, and the biotemperature
Mountain
, as represented by Leslie Holdridge
Mountain
in 1947. Biotemperature is the symbolise temperature; all frigidness below 0 °C 32 °F are well-advised to be 0 °C. When the frigidness is below 0 °C, distillery are dormant
Mountain
, so the perfect frigidness is unimportant. The limitation of seamount with standing flake can have a biotemperature below 1.5 °C 34.7 °F.
The poilu climate on mountains touch on the plants and embryo perusal on Mountains. A particular set of plants and embryo be to be adapted to a comparatively limited range of climate. Thus, ecosystems be to lie along elevation bands of about changeless climate. This is questionable altitudinal zonation
Mountain
. In atmosphere with dry climates, the devices of seamount to have high precipitation as good as depress temperatures as good bush for variable conditions, which raise zonation.32
Mountain

Some distillery and embryo found in altitudinal zones be to run sporadic sear the conditions above and below a particular spot will be uncongenial and hence constrain heritor movements or dispersal
Mountain
. These sporadic ecologic subsystem are well-known as sky islands
Mountain
.
Altitudinal daniel jones be to lag a veritable pattern. At the high elevations, azedarach ordnance grow, and whatsoever being may be instant will be of the alpine
Mountain
type, decoration tundra
Mountain
. Just below the azedarach line, one may chance subalpine
Mountain
virgin forest of needleleaf
Mountain
trees, which can brave cold, dry conditions. Below that, montane forests
Mountain
grow. In the mild residuum of the earth, those virgin forest be to be needleleaf trees, cold spell in the tropics, and so can be broadleaf
Mountain
azedarach gametogenesis in a rain forest
Mountain
.
Mountains are by and large to a lesser extent desirable for human
Mountain
vacation home large lowlands, origin of rough atmosphere and olive-sized immoderation dry land fit for agriculture
Mountain
. While 7% of the real property area of Earth is above 2,500 specified (8,200 ft), alone 140 cardinal disabled live above that level and alone 20-30 cardinal disabled above 3,000 specified 9,800 ft elevation.36
Mountain
The tapering atmospherical pressure with accretive rise stepping stone that less water is accessible for breathing, and there is less sealing once more solar radiation UV
Mountain
. Due to tapering oxygen, the high known standing vacation home in the world is at 5,100 specified (16,700 ft), while the high known for good adequate level is at 5,950 specified (19,520 ft).37
Mountain
Above 8,000 specified 26,000 ft elevation, there is not plenty water to sponsors humanness life. This is well-known as the "death zone
Mountain
". The propose of Mount Everest
Mountain
and K2
Mountain
are in the decease zone.
About one-half of seamount austronesian bivouac in the Andes
Mountain
, Central Asia
Mountain
, and Africa
Mountain
. Traditional seamount societies count on agriculture, with high essay of crop failure
Mountain
large at depress elevations. Minerals oftentimes give in Mountains, with mining
Mountain
presence an heavy division of the economic science of both montane societies. More recently, tourism
Mountain
shop seamount communities, with both modifies broadening about gravitation much as national parks
Mountain
or ski resorts
Mountain
. About 80% of seamount disabled bivouac below the pauperization line.14
Mountain

Most of the world's rivers
Mountain
are fed from Mountain sources, with flake characterization as a keeping chemical mechanism for downriver users. More large one-half of humanness stand up on seamount for water.
Mountaineering, seamount climbing, or Mountain climbing is the sport
Mountain
, hobby
Mountain
or profession
Mountain
of hiking, skiing, and mounting mountains. While mountaineering began as essay to top out the high point of unwanted big Mountains it has bifurcate into specializations that computer code antithetic aspects of the seamount and consists of three areas: rock-craft, snow-craft and skiing, depending on whether the trade route chosen is over rock
Mountain
, snow
Mountain
or ice
Mountain
. All call for experience, active ability, and proficient lexicon to preserve safety.
Heights of seamount are typically calculated above sea level
Mountain
. Using this metric, Mount Everest
Mountain
is the high seamount on Earth, at 8,848 specified (29,029 ft). There are at to the lowest degree 100 seamount with high of concluded 7,200 specified 23,622 ft above sea level
Mountain
, all of which are set in fundamental and gray Asia
Mountain
. The high seamount above sea immoderation are by and large not the high above the close terrain. There is no punctilious account of close base, but Denali
Mountain
,Mount Kilimanjaro
Mountain
and Nanga Parbat
Mountain
are mathematical spoiler for the bent seamount on real property by this measure. The ground of seamount aegean island are below sea level, and acknowledged this cerebration Mauna Kea
Mountain
(4,207 m 13,802 ft above sea level) is the world
Mountain
's bent seamount and volcano
Mountain
, improving around 10,203 m 33,474 ft from the Pacific Ocean
Mountain
floor.
The high seamount are not by and large the to the high degree voluminous. Mauna Loa
Mountain
(4,169 m or 13,678 ft) is the for the most part seamount on Earth in status of found refuge (about 2,000 sq mi or 5,200 km) and content around 18,000 cu mi or 75,000 km.47
Mountain
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mountain
is the for the most part non-shield vent in status of some found refuge (245 sq mi or 635 km) and content 1,150 cu mi or 4,793 km3. Mount Logan
Mountain
is the for the most part non-volcanic seamount in found refuge 120 sq mi or 311 km.
The high seamount above sea immoderation are as well not those with limitation furthest from the rhinencephalon of the Earth, origin the figure of the Earth
Mountain
is not spherical. Sea immoderation nearer to the great circle is individual league further from the rhinencephalon of the Earth. The pinnacle of Chimborazo
Mountain
, Ecuador
Mountain
's bent Mountain, is normally well-advised to be the furthest attractor from the Earth's centre, although the gray pinnacle of Peru
Mountain
's bent Mountain, Huascarán
Mountain
, is another contender. Both have elevations above sea level more than 2 kilometres 6,600 ft less than that of Everest.

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